Retrieved from: Casey weekly berwick
“A doubling of Australia’s population in coming decades combined with the crippling effects of future droughts means there will not be enough drinking water by the middle of this century if authorities do not do more to protect underground supplies, scientists warn.
“This doomsday scenario has prompted some of the country’s leading groundwater experts to call for a greater push to store treated stormwater and wastewater caused by coal seam gas extraction under the ground. They say that instead of keeping water on the surface in dams and reservoirs where it can evaporate or become polluted, it should be pumped into the ground to refill, or ”recharge”, aquifers – naturally occurring underwater storages.
“About 43 per cent of the NSW population either fully, or partially, relies on groundwater. More than 200 towns in the state use groundwater, tapped by sinking bores as deep as 600 metres, as the principal water supply source.
“Two local councils in western Sydney, Penrith and Blacktown, have already received federal government grants for feasibility studies into schemes to collect stormwater run-off and store it underground in a managed aquifer recharge – or MAR – project. The water would be used to maintain sports fields at Blacktown International Sportspark in Rooty Hill and Leonay Oval near Penrith.
“An MAR administered by a local council in Adelaide has already produced small quantities of drinkable water after it was stored in an aquifer for 12 months.
“The director of the National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training, Craig Simmons, said much more was needed to ”waterproof the nation” despite hundreds of millions of dollars being spent on trying to protect the nation’s groundwater resources as part of the National Water Initiative, which emerged from reforms agreed by the Council of Australian Governments.”
Read more: Casey weekly berwick
Retrieved from: Phys
“Six years and about 4,000 water samples later, an outdoor experimental watershed laboratory established by University of Delaware faculty members Shreeram Inamdar and Delphis Levia at Fair Hill, Md., is now producing valuable data and novel insights into how water and chemicals move through the forest canopy, soils and watersheds, and how future climate change may impact or alter such responses.
“Inamdar, associate professor in the Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, has investigated the role of soils, streams, andwatersheds in leaching water and nutrients, while Levia, professor in the Department of Geography, has studied the interactions of atmosphere and the forest canopy in leaching water and nutrients. Together, they have provided a complete picture of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry.
“The two were awarded a National Science Foundation (NSF) grant in 2008 to study the mechanisms behind the leaching and exports of carbon and nitrogen from watersheds and how these chemicals evolve as they change in space — traveling through the forest canopy, soils, and stream drainage network — and as they change in time through the different seasons.
“Both carbon and nitrogen are important elements of natural ecosystems but in excess can cause problems. Excess dissolved organic carbon in runoff and drinking water supplies can result in the production of cancer-causing byproducts when the water is chlorinated for disinfection. Elevated nitrogen concentrations, such as nitrate, ammonium and the organic forms, can result in degradation of water quality and the production of algal blooms in stream, ponds, and lakes and large water bodies like the Chesapeake Bay, making them unfit for swimming, fishing and other recreational activities.
“To characterize the movement of water and chemicals in the watershed, Inamdar and Levia implemented an intensive network of multiple, state-of-the-art, automated instruments, sensors and sampling devices that record rainfall and weather data, streamflow runoff, groundwater elevations, soil moisture and water quality. These sensors have been recording data at a frequency of 5 to 30 minutes for the past six years.”
Read more: Phys
Retrieved from: Greater Kashmir
“Pakistan has in most areas of agriculture a monsoon climate, and there might be abundant rainfall during the wet season and then a very long dry season where crop production depends very heavily on irrigation water.
“Groundwater is a very important source of irrigation for farmers. Ground water is being over-pumped extensively in order to meet current demands for food production but if our demands exceed that renewable supply, then we must be in the situation that we might be over-pumping groundwater to satisfy the demand, or taking too much water from river basin systems, result in formation of salinity and barren land that in long run cause food scarcity. Over-pumping of groundwater for agriculture, industry or domestic use comes at a sharp ecological price. It disrupts the natural hydrologic cycle, causes Rivers and wetlands to dry up, the ground to collapse and fish and wildlife and trees to die.
“Water and agricultural sectors are likely to be the most sensitive to climate change. Fresh water availability is expected to be highly vulnerable to the anticipated climate change. While the frequency and severity of floods would eventually increase in river deltas. The arid and semi-arid regions could experience severe water stress.
Read more: Eurasia review
Retrieved from: geokyungtae
“Texas is suffering from a drought that is throwing our ground-water conservation districts and landowners into crisis. The drought is having a great impact on our ground-water supply, which is a gift of the hydrological cycle: When rain falls to the ground, some of it seeps or flows through the earth to enter an aquifer. Water in the aquifer may then flow to a spring above or below the ground. It may then join a stream or river, flow toward the sea and later evaporate into the air, carried to where it will fall back as rain somewhere and again evaporate or try to seep into the ground to rejoin an aquifer. The cycle means that ground water and surface water in our streams and rivers are interconnected. What affects one also affects the other.
“Starkly in the face of these facts, our Legislature is poised to pass a bill known as CSSB 332 that could cripple or even destroy the groundwater management system that, prior to this session, it has painstakingly worked to build. This would be ironic: The Texas Constitution charges the Legislature with the responsibility of “preserving and conserving” natural resources.
“Texas has previously developed a water conservation system that seeks to provide integrated management of aquifers by means of locally elected ground-water conservation districts. These 96 districts now cover about half the state. The success of these ground-water conservation districts is needed more than ever, to manage ground-water pumping and usage while balancing the demands of population growth, municipal and agricultural water uses, spring and stream flow and the serious challenge of droughts.”
Read more: chron
“The Mayawati government in Uttar Pradesh is planning to bring a law to regulate exploitation of ground water in the state.
“This was first mooted in 2005 following a Central government advisory. However, the then Mulayam Singh government feared that restriction on ground water extraction would antagonise the farmer votebank. After coming to power in 2007, Mayawai government drafted a Bill. It took two years for the ground water department to prepare the UP Ground Water Conservation, Protection & Development (Management, Control and Regulation) Bill 2010.
“It was put in public domain for objections and suggestions. The Bill was opposed by the industrial and business lobby as it proposed strict regulation on extraction of ground water in multi-storey buildings and use of heavy pumps to draw water.
“As per a study of the state ground water board, state’s dependency on ground water resources has doubled over the years but the capacity to recharge aquifers through rain water harvesting have gone down.
“The situation is grim in 60 of the 71 districts. There are over 630 townships in the state, mostly dependent on ground water. Over 60% of total water demand of industries is being met through ground water resources. Nearly 70% of agriculture is dependent on tube-wells and rain water. The number of state tube-wells is over 28,000, deep tube-well over 17,000 and shallow private tube wells around 40 lakhs.
“As the situation is turning from bad to worse with each passing year, a senior official told TOI that the state government is seriously considering to bring the Bill in the assembly for enactment despite opposition from some quarters. ”
Read more: Times of India
Retrieved From: Boston Cap
“With Delhi facing an acute shortage of water, experts have suggested mixing saline water, abundantly available in several parts of the city, with fresh water to tide over the increasing gap between demand and supply.
“According to rough estimates, the national capital requires 3,324 million liters of water a day (MLD), while the supply is nearly 2,034 MLD. Average water consumption in Delhi is estimated at 240 liters per capita per day (lpcd), the highest in the country.
“Delhi receives its water mainly from river Yamuna, rains, Bhakra storage and Upper Ganga Canal.
“According to the latest report of Central Ground Water Board on the state of ground water in various Indian cities, ground water exploitation has not only resulted in depletion of fresh ground water resources but also gradual “invasion” of brackish water (that has more salinity than fresh water but not as much as sea water) into fresh water aquifers.
“Thus it has become eminent to explore the brackish water areas located within shallow or water-logged areas to promote the scientific management and proper planning for exploitation of brackish water which is the only effective controlling method of spreading brackish water front,” the report says.”
Read more: DNA
Retrieved from: bfg global
“Bahrain receives groundwater by lateral under-flow from the Dammam aquifer, which is part of an extensive regional system. Excessive extraction from this aquifer has led to supplies having an increased saline content because water is drawn from adjacent brackish and saline water sources.
“More than half of the country’s water is provided by the Hidd independent water and power plant (IWPP), with just 9% of supply for consumption provided by ground water in 2011. Desalinated water now accounts for more than 80% of Bahrain’s water provision, a proportion that is likely to increase over time.
“Desalinated water capacity has increased significantly since 2009 with the commissioning of the third phase of the Hidd Power Company desalination plant, which has raised output to 90mn gallons a day (g/d) – an increase of 60mn g/d over its previous capacity.
“The Electricity and Water Authority (EWA) is the agency responsible for the production and supply of power and water in Bahrain, working as an independent arm of the state. It has successfully pushed for the development of IWPPs via the third phase of Hidd’s desalination plant and the award of the Al Dur IWPP contract.
“The kingdom has also drafted a national policy for wastewater, including the reuse of treated sewage effluence. A major boost to wastewater treatment capacity will come with the development of the Muharraq wastewater plant, which will have a capacity of 100,000m3 per day (m3/d).”
Read more: PRlog
Retrieved from: Solinst
“A severe drinking water shortage is threatening Chennai because of salt water intrusion into its water sources, warn experts. Central Chennai is the worst affected, they say and add that the content of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is increasing. Irregulated tapping of groundwater in commercial and residential areas is why the city has lost its water sources forever, they say.
“CPR Environnmental Education Centre joint director P Sudhakar said there was a huge increase in the use of groundwater in the last two years. “As more and more multistoreyed apartment blocks have come up, we have noted a 25% increase in the use of ground water sources in the last two years.
“Central Chennai is the most critical as water consumption is increasing and the area doesn’t have any water bodies or sources to preserve groundwater,” he said.
“Salt water intrusion, experts say, occurs mainly due to the reduction of groundwater gradients. “Over-exploitation of groundwater sources allows saline water to displace fresh water from the city and region,” said a Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) official.
“Along with the massive development and the growing population, Sudhakar said the demand for groundwater had increased 100 times in the last 10 years. ”
Read more: Times of India
Retrieved from: LAtimes
“Should farmers in the Central Valley, California’s richest agricultural region, be required to monitor and clean up groundwater pollution from their operations? The issue will be taken up by the Central Valley Regional Water Control Board at a three-day meeting in Rancho Cordova beginning June 8.
“Under the proposed regulations, farmland would be classified based on the contamination risk. Farms considered most likely to pollute groundwater would have to take certain steps to reduce fertilizer and other agricultural runoff. If passed, the new rules would affect 35,000 growers who work about 7 million acres of irrigated land.
“Environmentalists faced off against farm groups in an all-day public hearing Thursday in Rancho Cordova. Farmers said that the regulations would be expensive and burdensome. Environmental and community groups said that current rules don’t protect drinking water from pesticides, fertilizers and other agricultural runoff.
“Runoff from irrigated agriculture is the largest source of pollution to Central Valley waterways and the Delta,” said the Sierra Club, the Center for Biological Diversity, the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance and more than 70 other state and local groups in a joint statement. “This pollution is one of the principal causes of the collapse of Central Valley fisheries.
“Inexplicably, irrigated agriculture remains exempt from requirements to monitor discharges and identify measure to reduce pollution,” the groups said, adding that such rules have “long been applicable to every other segment of society, from municipalities to industry to mom and pop businesses.”
Read more: LAtimes